Ayur Herbs

Ativisha

ATIVISA

 Botanical Name— Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Cat.

Family- RANUNCULACEAE

    Synonyms— Aruna, Ardrã, Upavisã, Kasäyã Krsnã, Ghuna Vallabhã, Cãndri, Pita Vallabhã, Prati Visa, Bhangurä, Madhya-deasthã, Mahausadha, Mãdri, Mrdvi, Raktã, Visvä, Visamã, Visa,sisubhaisajya, Suka Kandã, Sukla Kandã, Srngikã, Syama Kanda, svetã, Sveta Kanda, sveta  vaca.

 Names in different languages

 

Marathi
Persian
Punjabi
Tamil
Telugu Bengali

English

Gujarati

Hindi

Kannada

Malayalam

Ati Vish
Vajjcturki
Atis
Ati Vidayam
Ati Vasa Ataich

Indian Atees

Ativakhani Kali

Atis, Atvika

Ati Visha

Ati Vidayam

 Classification according to Caraka, Susruta & Vagbhata

 

Caraka Samhitã 

Suruta Samhitã :

Astanga Sangraha
Astanga Hrdaya

 

Lekhaniya, Arsöghna, Tikta skandha, SirovirecanaPippalyãdi, Mustãdi, Vacadi

Lekhaniya, Arsöghna, Pippalyãdi,
Mustãdi, Vacadi

Mustädi, Vacãdi Pippalyãdi

 

 

 Introduction—

              Carak considered this drug as prativisa, but Susruta considers A.palmatum as prativisa. it described under Lekhaniya, Arsoghna Vargas, Tikta skandha, sirovirecana dravyas ,

       Varieties & adulterants  – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants)

 1. Cherophyllum violosum [AD]

2. sukla

3. krsna

4. aruna

5. rakta

6. sveta

7. pita – Delphinium denudatum  – [CV]

 Morphology

 (i) A. heterophyllum—

Roots biennial, paired, tuberous; whitish or grey. Stem erect, simple or branched, from 15-20 cm high. glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part.

Leaves heteromorphous, glabrous: lowest on long petioles (13cm); blade orbicular- cordate or ovate-cordate in outline with a usually narrow sinus (1-1.5 cm deep); usually 5- lobed to the middle, amplexicaul.

Inflorescence slender raceme or a lax, leafy panicle, crispo-pubescent; Sepals bluish or violet (rarely whitish); navicular obliquely erect, shortly or obscurely beaked, 18-20 mm high, 8-9 mm wide. Carpels 5, elliptic-oblong. Follicles contagious, linear-oblong, straight, 16-18 mm long.

Seeds pyramidal, 3-4 mm long, blackish brown.

 Distribution— commonly found in sub-alpine and alpine zones Himalayas from Indus to Kumaon at 2000-5000 m (6000-16000 ft.).

(ii) A. palmatum—

 Roots, biennial, paired, tuberous; conical or cylindrical 4-10 cm long, 0.75-3 cm thick.

Stem erect.

Leaves scattered, upto 10, the lowest usually withered at the time of flowering, glabrous, or the upper most finely pubescent on the nerves below; petiole slender 4-10 cm long; blade orbicular-cordate to reniform , 3-lobed.

Inflorescence a very loose, leafy panicle or raceme, 10-20 cm long. Sepals bluish or variegated white and blue, uppermost helmet-shaped. Carpels 5, sub contagious in the flower.

Follicles sub contagious or some what diverging in the upper part, oblong, obliquely truncate, 2.5-3 cm long and 5-6 mm broad.

Seeds blackish, ovoid, about 3 mm long, round in Cross section.

 Chemical Constituents—

(i) A. heterophyllum—

Atidine , hetisine, heteratisine ,Diterpene alkaloids , heterophylline, heterophylline ,heterophyllidine heterophyllisine, hetidine, atidine & Atisenol, a new entatisene diterpenoid lactone from roots.     

F-dishydrçatisine, hetidine, hetisinone, heteratisine, hetisine, benzylleteratisine, beta —sitosterol, carotene and beta— isoatisine from rhizomes

(ii) A. palmatum—

 non-toxic alkaloid has been isolated from A. palmatum

 Distribution & Habitat

Maharashtra & Himalayas

 Properties

Rasa –     Katu, Tikta

Guna –    Laghu, Ruksha
Virya –   Ushna
Vipaka – Katu

Karma –    Dipana, Päcana, Grãhi, Tridosahara, sotha hara, Visaghna, Krmihara, Arsoghna, Jvara hara, Kãsa hara
Prabhãva- Visa hara

 External uses

  The crushed eaves, mixed with saindhav are applied focally. The seeds crushed in honey are applied locally on throat, in tonsillitis. Nasal insufflations of roots is beneficial in headache (especially migrain)

Internal uses 
 Respiratory system : The juice of roots along with milk is an expectorant Root powder is given orally in cervical lymphadenitis.

Digestive system : Seed and root are used in ascites. Seeds are laxative.

Urinary system : The seeds are diuretic, the root decoction reduces burning of urinary tract. It increases volume of urine,

 Reproductive system Root is used in sperrnatorrhoea. The decoction of roots is also used in burning of vagina.

Circulatory system : The juice of leaves along with juice of zingier reduce perspiration.

 Toxic effects—

Over dosage (More than 5-6g) produces symptoms like dryness of mouth, tremors etc.

 Pretreatment of A. palmatum root in cow’s milk and urine reduced the cardio-toxicity (Singh L.B. et al., 1985).

 Srotogamitva:

Dosha : Tridoshaghna.
Dhatu : Majja (brain tonic), rakta. shukra. meda:
Mala : Mutra (diuretic). purisha (laxative). sweda.

 Part Used—

The tuberous root is medicinally used both alone and in combination. Yogaratnakara mentioned that Haritaki may be used as the substitute for Ativisã.

 Dosage—

Root powder l-3g per day (divided doses)

 Indications

 Atisãra, Jwara, Kãsa, Bãla röga. Visa röga, Ama dosa, Chardi, Krimi roga, Agnimãndya, Rakta pitta, Yakrd roga, Trsnã, Pinasa, Arsa, Pittodara etc.

 Important research work going on

 1. contractions of frog rectus abdominis induced by acetylcholine.
Clinical Studies

2. diarrhoeal disorders

3. hypolipidemic effect

  Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Bala röga— Ativisã alone or along with Karkatasrngi
and Pippali in case of cough and fever (A.H.Ut.2/57 & V.M.66/10)’.

 (2) Atisära— Ativisã + Bhanga + Vacã as powder

(3) Jvaratisara— sunthi, Kutaja, Mustã, guduci & Ativisã are
given orally in the form of decoction .

4) Grahani— The decoction made of Ativiã, sunthi & Mustã is administered orally to destroy the Ama (C.S.Ci.15/98)3.

(5) Mutra krçchra— Ativisã, Amla dravyas, Sunthi, Goksura, Kantakari are made as Peyã (gruel) and given along with Phãnita (jaggery syrup)- (C.S.Su. 2/22).

(6) Visa roga— A ghee prepared with Ativisã and cow’s milk is used orally or as nasal drops in case of acute poisoning. The ghee may also be processed with Sveta  and Madayantikã (S.S.Ka.1/64)

(7) Musika Visa— Ativisã root is made into paste by grinding with honey and administered orally (S.S.Ka. 7/39)’.

 
8) Vrana— syonãka , Prativisã, Kantakãri müla are made into paste and applied over the wounds (A.H. Ut. 35/47)2.

 (9) Kuksi roga /Udara rogas- 1 part Ativisa + 3 parts Añkola, administered orally with rice water (Tandulodaka)- (V.S. Grahaii. l67).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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